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Protein S
In 1979, researchers in Seattle, Wash, first discovered protein S and arbitrarily named it after the city of its discovery. Protein S is a vitamin K–dependent anticoagulant protein. Its major function is as a cofactor to facilitate the action of activated protein C (APC) on its substrates, activated factor V (FVa) and activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). Protein S deficiencies are associated with thrombosis.

Protein S deficiency may be hereditary or acquired, the latter is usually due to hepatic diseases or a vitamin K deficiency. Protein S deficiency usually manifests clinically as venous thromboembolism (VTE). The association of protein S deficiency with arterial thrombosis appears coincidental or weak at best. Arterial thrombosis is not evident with other hereditary anticoagulant abnormalities (eg, protein C or antithrombin III deficiency, factor V Leiden gene mutation). Protein S deficiency manifests as an autosomal dominant trait; manifestations of thrombosis are observed in both heterozygous and homozygous genetic deficiencies of protein S.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.


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